And yet, if the tube disconnected and the switch closed the meter may read anywhere from a tenth a milliampere two milliamperes depending the voltage, and this reading with the tube in circuit best paper writing service reviews before the actual amount producing radiation can estimated. Is not possible that much the variation in effects found different workers supposedly using equal dosage factors due actual variations in the factors themselves, that inaccurate measurement The Radiological Society North Let first consider what these factors are and then take the question measurement separately for each factor.
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All these factors are not subject serious error in practice and the discussion limited such as are.
For this discussion only the physical factors will crmsidered since the biological factors, such as skin reaction, radiation sickness, effects the blood and other tissues, cannot accurately determined until the physical factors are definitely established.
Unfortunately, much the work the reaction tissue ladiation has been done with poorly controlled physical measurements and top 10 dissertation writing services there are experiments described which would impossible duplicate from the data given.
It doubted if the experimenters themselves could exactly reproduce the conditions described them. The physical factors involved in applying a given quality and quantity radiation a given amount tissue are For quality, first, the voltage applied and maintained at the tube terminals report writing help second, the filtering material and its amount placed between the source radiation and the irradiated object. For quantity, first, the voltage applied and maintained at the tube terminals second, the volume or rate current flow through the tube third, the time during which this rate flow maintained fourth, the distance between the source radiation, the focal spot, and the substance being irradated fifth, the size the area being irradiated sixth, the filtering assignment writing help in dubai material and its amount between the source and the Of all these factors the one the two affecting both quality and quantity the voltage the most carelessly measured.
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It not only carelessly measured, but there are two meanings for the same term voltage as used in roentgenotherapeutic literature today.
To make matters worse, another method estimating and recording quality radiation usually used, in fact the oldest method and has the authority age. This method that the parallel spark gap and generally thesis writing help recorded as gap without qualification as what kind a gap meant.
Lately has been customary add between blunt points the word gap.
How blunt these points are or how the gap was tested, that meter reading, setting and testing or moving the gap while the tube was running, left the imagination.
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About two years ago the writer, in order find out just how ucas personal statement writing service uk great the error was in estimating voltage these methods, tested a number machines adopted the european Institute Electrical Engineers for measuring high voltages. The results were startling. A variation from thirty-two per cent above the supposed voltage twenty-four machines were tested. The results and conclusions were published in the european Journal Roentgenology for April. As the method and the comparison accuracy bet veen the sphere and point gaps were covered in that paper they will not repeated here. Since that time other machines Angeles and Santa Barbara, California. This supplementary data only emphasizes the contention that the use the point gap, spark meter or voltmeter the primary as usually used measure the voltage at the tube grossly inaccurate. following table was compiled from some the observations made different machines, The figures above the line in each case represent the gap in inches between blunt points, or those which were recorded the operator as such, and the figures immediately beneath are measured at the tube terminals with a standard sphere gap. The different figures are the result observations made It easily seen from these figures that one attempting regulate his dosage the old gap method might give an overdose as high as tliirty-seven per cent or as write my sociology paper much as fourteen per cent lower than intended pay people to write papers when using a six inches gap, with an eight inch gap from twenty per cent over six per cent under and with a nine coursework uk inch six per cent variation in either direction. Unfortunately, if agreed use the definite term voltage instead the ambiguous spark gap in defining this particular dosage factor would still whether the kiiovoits were the peak or maximum or whether the effective or root-mean-square voltage was meant. The writer, within the last few months, has heard one essayist state that was using a certain gap which represented many kilovolls and a fewminutes later another make the equally positive statement that the same gap represented a voltage nearly one and a half times as much. A little calculation showed that they both were using the same voltage factor, but were giving different meanings the term kilovolts.